IGF-1 is a peptide hormone that shares structural homology with insulin and is part of the IGF family, which also includes IGF-2 and several IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). IGF-1 is predominantly synthesized in the liver in response to growth hormone (GH) stimulation, although it can also be produced locally by various tissues. IGF-1 exerts its effects by binding to the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), a tyrosine kinase receptor that activates multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways. These pathways regulate cell growth, differentiation, survival, and metabolism. IGF-1 plays a vital role in growth and development, particularly during childhood and adolescence, and is essential for maintaining bone density, muscle mass, and metabolic homeostasis. Dysregulation of IGF-1 signaling has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, metabolic disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.